Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood.
Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes.
A blood test can show if you have diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your glucose level and take medicine if prescribed.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
3 Nursing Care Plan Diabetes Mellitus – Diagnosis, Interventions and Rational
Nursing Diagnosis for Diabetes Mellitus
1. Nursing Diagnosis : Fluid Volume Deficit related to osmotic diuresis.
Demonstrate adequate hydration evidenced by stable vital signs, palpable peripheral pulse, skin turgor and capillary refill well, individually appropriate urinary output, and electrolyte levels within normal limits.
1.) Monitor vital signs.
Rational: hypovolemia can be manifested by hypotension and tachycardia.
2.) Assess peripheral pulses, capillary refill, skin turgor, and mucous membranes.
Rational: This is an indicator of the level of dehydration, or an adequate circulating volume.
3.) Monitor input and output, record the specific gravity of urine.
Rational: To provide estimates of the need for fluid replacement, renal function, and effectiveness of the therapy given.
4.) Measure weight every day.
Rational: To provide the best assessment of fluid status of ongoing and further to provide a replacement fluid.
5.) Provide fluid therapy as indicated.
Rational: The type and amount of liquid depends on the degree of lack of fluids and the response of individual patients.
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